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Windows

Windows 7 : Configuring a Peer-to-Peer Network (part 1) - Configuring the TCP/IP Protocol

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7/7/2013 9:25:30 PM

When you’re sure that the physical connection between your computers is set up correctly, you’re ready to configure Windows 7. With today’s Plug and Play network cards and with all the needed software built in to Windows, this configuration is a snap.

1. Configuring the TCP/IP Protocol

After your network adapters are all installed—and, if you’re using a wired network, cabled together—you need to ensure that each computer is assigned an IP address. This is a number that uniquely identifies each computer on the network. These numbers are assigned in one of the following ways:

  • If the network has a computer that uses Windows Internet Connection Sharing to share an Internet connection, if you have a hardware Internet sharing router, or if you are on a corporate LAN running Windows Server, each computer will be assigned an IP address automatically—they’re doled out by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that runs on the sharing computer or in the router. This is why I recommend using a router even if you aren’t setting up a shared Internet connection.

    By default, Windows sets up new network adapters to receive an address this way. If your network fits into this category, you don’t have to change any settings, and you can just skip ahead to the section “If You Have a Shared Internet Connection.”

  • Each computer can be given an address manually, which is called a static address as opposed to a dynamic (automatic) one. If you are not going to use a router or a shared Internet connection, you should set up static addressing. I tell you how shortly.

  • If no static settings are made but no DHCP server exists on the network, Windows automatically assigns IP addresses anyway. Although the network will work, this is not an ideal situation and can slow Windows down. The setup steps I show in the following two sections will let you avoid having IP addresses be assigned this way.

If you’re setting up a new computer on an existing network, use whatever scheme the existing computers use; check their settings and follow suit with your new one. Otherwise, use either of the schemes described in the following two sections.

If You Have No Shared Internet Connection

If you’re setting up a new network from scratch, and you do not have a connection sharing computer, router, or wireless access point, you should use static addressing. If your computer will be part of an existing network with predetermined IP addresses, your network manager will provide you with the setup information.

Otherwise, for most home and small office networks, the following static address scheme should work fine:

IP Address192.168.1.1 for your first computer,
 192.168.1.2 for your second computer,
 192.168.1.3 for your third, and so on.
 I strongly suggest that you keep a list of your computers and the addresses that you assign to each of them.
Subnet Mask255.255.255.0
Default Gateway,(Leave blank)
Preferred DNS Server(Leave blank)
Alternate DNS Server(Leave blank)

Follow these steps on each computer to ensure that the network is set up correctly:

1.
Log on using a Computer Administrator account. Click Start, Control Panel, View Network Status and Tasks (under Network and Internet), Change Adapter Settings. Right-click the Local Area Connection or Wireless Connection icon that corresponds to your LAN connection and select Properties.

Tip

If your computer will move back and forth between a network that uses automatic configuration and a network that uses static settings—say, between work and home—select Obtain An IP Address Automatically. A tab named Alternate Configuration will appear. Select the Alternate Configuration tab and configure the static settings. Windows will use these static settings only when a DHCP server is not present.

2.
Highlight Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click Properties.

3.
Change the settings in the Properties dialog box. Figure 1 shows an example, but you must use the address values appropriate for your computer and your network.

Figure 1. Make IP address settings within the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties dialog box.


If You Have a Shared Internet Connection

As I mentioned previously, if you plan to share an Internet connection with all the computers on your network. Keep the following tips in mind:

  • If you will use Windows Internet Connection Sharing, first set up the one computer that will be sharing its connection, then set up networking in your other computers.

    Note

    If you add a shared Internet connection later, go to every one of your computers, bring up the TCP/IP Properties dialog box shown in Figure 17.12 again, and select Obtain an IP Address Automatically and Obtain DNS Server Address Automatically. Otherwise, the shared connection will not work.


  • All the computers, including the one sharing its Internet connection, should have their Local Area Network connection set up to Obtain an IP Address Automatically and Obtain DNS Server Address Automatically (see Figure 17.12).

  • If you will use a hardware router, configure the router first, following the manufacturer’s instructions. Enable its DHCP feature. If you can, set the starting DHCP IP address to 100 so that numbers from 2 to 99 can be used for computers with static settings. Also, if your ISP has provided you with static IP address settings, be sure to enter your ISP’s DNS server addresses in the router’s setup screens so it can pass them to the computers that rely on the router for their IP setup.

Now that your new network connection is set up, be sure to assign it the correct network location, as described in the next section. This is a critical part of Windows networking security.

Other -----------------
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