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Exchange Server 2010 Administration Essentials : Understanding Exchange Server 2010 Organizations (part 2) - Using Configuration Containers Instead of Administrative Groups

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3. Using Configuration Containers Instead of Administrative Groups

Exchange Server 2010 uses configuration containers instead of administrative groups to simplify the administrative model. As you can see in Figure 2 you can view the logical structure of the Exchange organization in the Exchange Management Console. Start the Exchange Management Console by clicking Start, selecting All Programs, selecting Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, and selecting Exchange Management Console. When you are logged on to a computer in the Exchange forest, you can work with the local Exchange servers by using the subnodes of the Microsoft Exchange On-Premises node. Otherwise, you need to connect to the Exchange forest before you can work with Exchange servers and you need to establish one connection for each online and on-premises implementation. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. In the Exchange Management Console, right-click the Microsoft Exchange node and then select Add Exchange Forest.

  2. In the Add Exchange Forest dialog box, specify the friendly name for the Exchange implementation to which you want to connect. This is the name that will be displayed in the Exchange Management Console.

  3. Enter the fully qualified domain name, host name, or IP address of the Exchange server you want to connect to. Normally, this is a Client Access server. However, all Exchange servers run the Remote PowerShell Web application on their instance of Internet Information Services (IIS). For an Exchange online organization, use the external name provided to you.

  4. To log on with your current credentials, select Logon With Default Credential, and then click OK. Otherwise, click OK, type the name and password of a user account with Exchange administrator permissions, and then click OK again.

Regardless of whether you are connected to the Exchange forest automatically or connect to an Exchange forest manually, you are connected to an automatically selected server. You can specify an Exchange server to connect to by right-clicking the friendly name of the forest and then clicking Properties. In the Properties dialog box, the Specify A Server option is selected by default. Click Browse. Select the Exchange server you want to connect to, and then click OK. Click OK again to apply your changes.

Note

The Exchange Management Console establishes connections to a designated server in the Exchange organization via the Windows Remote Management service. The server name you enter sets the URL that the Exchange Management Console will use to connect to Exchange Server for remote management, such as https://MailServer23.cpandl.com/PowerShell/.

On a server running Exchange Server 2010, WinRM and related services are set up automatically. On your management computer, you need to install the required components and configure WinRM . You can customize the WinRM configuration for your environment. In the Exchange Management Shell, the related commands are New-PowerShellVirtualDirectory, Get-PowerShellVirtual-Directory, Set-PowerShellVirtualDirectory, and Test-PowerShellConnectivity. If you enter Get-PowerShellVirtualDirectory | Format-List, you'll get configuration details for each Client Access server in the Exchange organization. You can use Set-PowerShellVirtualDirectory to enable or disable authentication mechanisms, including basic authentication, certificate authentication, Live ID basic authentication, Live ID NTLM negotiate authentication, and Windows authentication. You can also specify the internal and external URLs for the PowerShell virtual directory on a per-server basis. By default, servers have only internal URLs for PowerShell. For troubleshooting issues related to the PowerShell virtual directory, enter Test-PowerShellConnectivity followed by the URL to test, such as https://mailer1.cpandl.com/powershell.

Figure 2 shows the main window for the Exchange Management Console. In the Exchange Management Console, the forest-level node is the starting point for managing Exchange. When you select this node, you can use the options on the Organizational Health tab to generate and view organizational reports that include general health, licensing, and configuration statistics. Select the Click Here To Access The Latest Data link to generate or update the health statistics. Under the forest-level node, you'll find three top-level containers:

  • Organization Configuration Used to view and manage the global settings for all servers and recipients in an organization. Settings are organized based on the server role and applied globally throughout the organization.

  • Server Configuration Used to view and manage the configuration of individual servers in an organization. Servers are organized by role.

  • Recipient Configuration Used to view and manage recipients in an organization. Recipients are organized by type, independent of the Mailbox server on which they are stored.

Note

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can get organization configuration information by entering $s=Get-OrganizationConfig; $os=$s.organizationsummary;$os | ft key,value.

The configuration containers are used to manage the Exchange organization.

Figure 2. The configuration containers are used to manage the Exchange organization.

The sections that follow discuss these Exchange components and explain how they fit into the overall organizational structure.

Working with the Organization Configuration Node

With Exchange Server 2010, the scope of the organization is the same as the scope of your Active Directory organization. Because of this, Organization Configuration node settings apply to all Exchange servers and Exchange recipients in all domains in your Active Directory forest. When you select the Organization Configuration node, the results pane provides tabs for working with federation trusts and organizational relationships, as shown in Figure 3. You use these tabs as follows:

  • Federation Trusts Create and manage trusts between federated forests. Federated forests are Active Directory forests from different organizations or from organizations having different forest roots for which you've established trust relationships. You also can manage the identities of domains in the organization that should be federated. Every domain where users have primary e-mail services should be identified and, as appropriate, enabled for federation.

  • Organizational Relationships Enable and manage organizational relationships with external organizations. You use these relationships to enable secure information sharing using federation.

Note

After you have established federation trusts and organizational relationships, you can manage sharing policies by expanding the Organizational Configuration node, selecting the related Mailbox node, and then clicking the Sharing Policies tab. The default sharing policy allows for sharing calendar free/busy information with any external domain.

The Organization Configuration node extends to administrator roles as well as other organization-wide settings.

Figure 3. The Organization Configuration node extends to administrator roles as well as other organization-wide settings.

The subnodes under the Organization Configuration node provide access to the most common organization-level settings you'll work with:

  • Mailbox Allows you to manage Mailbox server role settings that apply to your entire Exchange 2010 organization. Mailbox server role settings that you can manage include address lists, managed folders, mailbox policies, databases, database availability groups, and offline address books. 

  • Client Access Allows you to manage Client Access server role settings that apply to your entire Exchange 2010 organization. Client Access server role settings allow you to create and manage mailbox policies for Outlook Web App and Exchange ActiveSync.

  • Hub Transport Allows you to manage Hub Transport server role settings that apply to your entire Exchange 2010 organization. Hub Transport server role settings you can manage include antispam settings, remote and accepted domains, e-mail address policies, transport rules, journal rules, send connectors, and Edge subscriptions. 

  • Unified Messaging Allows you to manage Unified Messaging server role settings that apply to your entire Exchange 2010 organization. Unified Messaging server role settings you can manage include dial plans, gateways, mailbox policies, and auto-attendants.

With Exchange Server organizations, most organization information is stored in Active Directory. When you start the Exchange Management Console, the console obtains the organization configuration details from the authoritative domain controller to which your computer is currently connected. In some cases, such as when you need to work with recipients and objects in a specific site or domain, you might want to connect to a specific authoritative domain controller and obtain server and Organization Configuration node details from this server.

You can specify the domain controller from which to obtain Organization Configuration node details by completing the following steps:

  1. Open the Exchange Management Console.

  2. Right-click the Organization Configuration node, and then select Modify Configuration Domain Controller. The Configuration Domain Controller dialog box appears, shown in Figure 4.

    Specify the domain and domain controller to use.

    Figure 4. Specify the domain and domain controller to use.

  3. Select Specify A Domain Controller. Click the Browse button to the right of the Domain text box, and then use the Select Domain dialog box to select the domain to use.

  4. In the specified domain, by default you are connected to the first authoritative domain controller that responds to your request. To specify a configuration domain controller to use, click the Browse button to the right of the Configuration Domain Controller text box. Use the Select Domain Controller dialog box to select the domain controller to use according to its site membership in the previously specified domain.

  5. When you click OK, the Exchange Management Console retrieves the topology information for the specified domain and site.

Working with the Server Configuration Node

All servers running Exchange Server 2010 have one or more server roles. You can deploy the Mailbox, Client Access, Hub Transport, and Unified Messaging server roles together. You can also manage these roles together using the Server Configuration node in the Exchange Management Console. When you select the Server Configuration node in the Exchange Management Console, all Exchange servers in your Exchange Server 2010 organization are listed in the results pane by name, the Exchange Server 2010 roles installed, and the Exchange Server version, as shown in Figure 5.

Server Configuration node settings apply to individual servers according to their role.

Figure 5. Server Configuration node settings apply to individual servers according to their role.

You can work with the individual server entries in several ways:

  • If you right-click a server entry, you see a shortcut menu with options for managing each configured role. Selecting one of those options opens the corresponding subnode under Server Configuration, and doing this is the same as selecting the subnode and then selecting the server with which you want to work.

  • If you right-click a server entry and then select Properties, you see the Properties dialog box, shown in Figure 6. The General tab provides summary information about the Exchange version, edition, roles, and licensing. The System Settings tab shows the domain controllers being used by Exchange and the Global Catalog servers being used by Exchange.

General properties provide additional configuration details for the selected server.

Figure 6. General properties provide additional configuration details for the selected server.

The subnodes under the Server Configuration node provide access to the most common settings you'll work with for individual servers according to their role:

  • Mailbox Allows you to manage the mailbox configuration of a selected server. In the top pane, servers are listed by name, role, and Exchange version. If you select a server in the top pane, the related databases are listed.

  • Client Access Allows you to manage the client access configuration of a selected server. In the top pane, servers are listed by name, role, Exchange version, and Outlook Anywhere state. If you select a server in the top pane, you can view the Web sites and Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) used with Outlook Web App, Exchange ActiveSync, POP3 And IMAP4, and Offline Address Book Distribution. 

  • Hub Transport Allows you to manage the hub transport configuration of a selected server. In the top pane, servers are listed by name, role, Exchange version, and message-tracking state. If you select a server in the top pane, you can view the receive connectors and their status as well as the status of IP Allow and IP Block lists for antispam. 

  • Unified Messaging Allows you to manage the unified messaging configuration of a selected server. In the top pane, servers are listed by name, role, Exchange version, unified messaging status, and associated dial plans. If you select a server in the top pane, you can view the dial plans, IP gateways, mailbox policies, and auto-attendants for that server.

As with organization-level configuration details, the configuration details for individual servers are stored in Active Directory. You can specify the domain controller from which to obtain Server Configuration node details by completing the following steps:

  1. Open the Exchange Management Console.

  2. Right-click the Server Configuration node, and then select Modify Configuration Domain Controller. The Configuration Domain Controller dialog box appears, shown previously in Figure 4.

  3. Follow steps 5 in the procedure in the section Working with the Organization Configuration Node.

Working with the Recipient Configuration Node

A recipient is an entity that can receive Exchange mail. Recipients include users, contacts, distribution groups, public folders, and resources. Types of resources used with Exchange include rooms and equipment used for scheduling.

You refer to recipients as either mailbox-enabled or mail-enabled. Mailbox-enabled recipients (users and resources) have mailboxes for sending and receiving e-mail messages. Mail-enabled recipients (contacts, distribution groups, and public folders) have e-mail addresses but no mailboxes. This allows users in your organization to send messages to mail-enabled recipients. Keep in mind that when you mail-enable a public folder and grant Send As permission on the folder to a user, the user can send mail on behalf of the public folder.

In addition to users, contacts, groups, resources, and public folders, Exchange Server 2010 has two unique types of recipients: linked mailboxes and dynamic distribution groups. Basically, a linked mailbox represents a mailbox that is accessed by a user in a separate, trusted forest. A dynamic distribution group is a type of distribution group that you can use to build a list of recipients whenever mail addressed to the group is received, rather than having a fixed member list.

To manage recipients in your organization, you need to know these key concepts:

  • How e-mail policies are used E-mail address policies define the technique Exchange uses to create e-mail addresses for users, resources, contacts, and mail-enabled groups. For example, you can set a policy for users with Exchange mailboxes that creates e-mail addresses by combining an e-mail alias with . Thus, during setup of an account for William Stanek, the e-mail alias williams is combined with to create the e-mail address .

  • How address lists are used You use address lists to organize recipients and resources, making it easier to find the ones that you want to use, along with their related information. During setup, Exchange creates a number of default address lists. The most commonly used default address list is the global address list, which lists all the recipients in the organization. You can create custom address lists as well.

  • How managed folders are used Every recipient has a default set of managed folders that are displayed in Outlook and Outlook Web App. These folders include Inbox, Contacts, Drafts, Deleted Items, Junk E-mail, Notes, Outbox, and Sent Items. To the default folders, you can add custom managed folders. For example, if managers need to approve certain types of messages before the messages are sent, you can create a Pending Approval folder.

In the Exchange Management Console, Recipient Configuration node settings apply to individual recipients in all domains in your Active Directory forest according to their type. The subnodes under the Recipient Configuration node provide access to recipients according to their type or state:

  • Mailbox Allows you to view and manage user mailboxes, room mailboxes, equipment mailboxes, and linked mailboxes. 

  • Distribution Group Allows you to view and manage standard and dynamic distribution groups. 

  • Mail Contact Allows you to view and manage mail contacts.

  • Disconnected Mailbox Allows you to view and manage disconnected mailboxes. A disconnected mailbox is a mailbox that is not associated with an Active Directory user account because it has been removed and marked for deletion. By default, when you remove a mailbox, it remains as a disconnected mailbox in Exchange for 30 days. At the end of the 30-day period, the mailbox is permanently removed. 

  • Move Request Allows you to view and manage mailboxes being moved from one Exchange environment to another. 

When you select the Recipient Configuration node in the Exchange Management Console, or any related subnodes, Exchange recipients for your logon domain are listed in the results pane, as shown in Figure 7. Recipients are scoped to the logon domain by default, rather than to all domains in the Active Directory forest, because an enterprise can have many thousands of recipients, and you typically will not want to work with all recipients in all domains simultaneously.

Recipient Configuration node settings apply to individual recipients according to their type.

Figure 7. Recipient Configuration node settings apply to individual recipients according to their type.

You can, however, configure the recipient scope so that you can do the following:

  • View all recipients in your Active Directory forest.

  • View all recipients in a specific organizational unit (OU).

You can set the scope for recipient configuration by completing the following steps:

  1. Open the Exchange Management Console.

  2. Right-click the Recipient Configuration node, and then select Modify Recipient Scope. The Recipient Scope dialog box appears, shown in Figure 8.

  3. If you want to view all recipients in your Active Directory forest, select View All Recipients In Forest. Information about recipients for the forest is retrieved from the global catalog. If you'd like to specify a Global Catalog server to use, select the Global Catalog check box, click Browse, and then use the Select Global Catalog dialog box to select the Global Catalog server to use according to its site membership in the forest.

  4. If you want to view all recipients in a specific domain or organizational unit, select View All Recipients In Specified Organizational Unit. Information about recipients for the domain or organizational unit is retrieved from a domain controller in the domain or OU. If you'd like to specify a domain controller to use, select the Recipient Domain Controller check box, click Browse, and then use the Select Domain Controller dialog box to select the domain controller to use according to its site membership in the related domain.

    Specify the scope for recipient configuration.

    Figure 8. Specify the scope for recipient configuration.

  5. When you click OK, the recipient information for the specified forest, domain, or OU is retrieved.

When you select the Recipient Configuration node in the Exchange Management Console, or any related subnodes, the maximum number of Exchange recipients you can view at any time is limited by default to 1,000. You can change the maximum number of recipients to display by completing the following steps:

  1. Open the Exchange Management Console.

  2. Right-click the Recipient Configuration node or the subnode you want to work with, and then click Modify The Maximum Number Of Recipients To Display. This displays the Maximum Number Of Recipients To Display dialog box, shown in Figure 9.

    Specify the number of recipients to display.

    Figure 9. Specify the number of recipients to display.

  3. In the text box provided, type the maximum number of recipients to display.

  4. When you click OK, the recipient display is refreshed using the specified maximum number of recipients.

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