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Exchange Server 2010 : Managing Web and Mobile Access (part 3) - Throttling Client Access, Configuring URLs and Authentication for the OAB

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9. Throttling Client Access

Every Client Access server in your organization is subject to the default client throttling policy. Client throttling policies are designed to ensure users aren't intentionally or unintentionally overloading Exchange. Exchange tracks the resources that each user consumes and applies throttling policy to enforce connection bandwidth limits as necessary.

The default policy is set in place when you install your first Exchange 2010 Client Access server. In Exchange 2010, there is a single default throttling policy for the organization. You can customize the default policy or add additional policies as necessary.

To manage throttling policy, you use Exchange Management Shell and the Get-ThrottlingPolicy, Set-ThrottlingPolicy, New-ThrottlingPolicy, and Remove-ThrottlingPolicy cmdlets. Throttling policy applies to:

  • Exchange Web Services (EWS)

  • IMAP

  • Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync (EAS)

  • Outlook Web App (OWA)

  • POP

  • PowerShell

With all of these features except PowerShell, you can specify separate settings for

  • Maximum concurrency controls the maximum number of connections a user can have at one time. The valid range is 0 to 100, with $null removing the limit. There are EASMaxConcurrency, EWSMaxConcurrency, IMAPMaxConcurrency, OWAMaxConcurrency, POPMaxConcurrency, and PowerShellMaxConcurrency parameters.

  • PercentTimeInCAS, PercentTimeInAD, and PercentTimeInMailboxRPC control the maximum percentage of a minute that can be spent executing CAS code requests, LDAP requests and mailbox RPC requests respectively. The valid range is any percent value. To remove the limit use a value of $null. There are EASPercentTimeInCAS, EASPercentTimeInAD, and EASPercentTimeInMailboxRPC parameters, as well as similar parameters for other services.

Note

LDAP and mailbox RPC requests are a subset of CAS code requests. Here, a value of 100 indicates that for every one minute window, the caller can spend 60 seconds on that request. With concurrent requests, each request has a separate window, so two requests that spend 60 seconds each result in 120 seconds being used in a 60 second window. If this was the maximum allowed, you'd set the percent time to 200.

Unified Messaging users have the throttling settings of Exchange Web Services. You also can specify the CPU start percent. This value sets the per-process CPU usage percentage at which users governed by this policy will be throttled. Valid values are from 0 through 100. Use $null to turn off CPU percentage-based throttling for a policy.

With PowerShell you can specify:

  • Maximum number of concurrent Remote PowerShell sessions per user using PowerShellMaxConcurrency

  • Maximum number of cmdlets that a user can run in a given interval using PowerShellMaxCmdlets

  • The time period for determining whether the maximum number of cmdlets has been exceeded using PowerShellMaxCmdletsTimePeriod

  • The maximum number of operations per user with the PowerShellMaxCmdletQueueDepth

Note

Maximum concurrency controls the number of user sessions. Maximum cmdlets controls the number of cmdlets in each user session. The two values together are affected by the maximum queue depth allowed. For example, if five user sessions are allowed, and each can run four cmdlets in a given interval, the maximum queue depth to allow this is 20 (5 user session x 4 cmdlets each = 20). Any value less than 20 restricts the number of operations that can be performed in this scenario.

You can get the default throttling policy by entering: Get-ThrottlingPolicy default* or Get-ThrottlingPolicy | where-object {$_.IsDefault -eq $true}. You can get the throttling policy applied to a particular user by entering (Get-Mailbox UserAlias ).ThrottlingPolicy where UserAlias is the alias for a user, such as:

(Get-Mailbox jimj).ThrottlingPolicy | Get-ThrottlingPolicy

You can create a nondefault throttling policy using the New-ThrottlingPolicy cmdlet. You can then assign the policy to a mailbox using the -ThrottlingPolicy parameter of the Set-Mailbox and New-Mailbox cmdlets. In the following example, you apply TempUserThrottlingPolicy to AmyG:

Set-Mailbox -Identity amyg -ThrottlingPolicy (Get-ThrottlingPolicy
TempUserThrottlingPolicy)

You can modify default and nondefault throttling policies using Set-ThrottlingPolicy. To have a user go back to the default policy, set the -ThrottlingPolicy parameter to $null as shown in this example:

Set-Mailbox -Identity amyg -ThrottlingPolicy $null

You can find all user mailboxes that currently have a particular policy applied using Get-Mailbox with a where-object filter. In the following example, you look for all user mailboxes that have the TempUserThrottlingPolicy:

$p = Get-ThrottlingPolicy TempUserThrottlingPolicy
Get-Mailbox | where-object {$_.ThrottlingPolicy -eq $p.Identity}

To switch multiple users from one policy to another, you can do the following:

$op = Get-ThrottlingPolicy TempUserThrottlingPolicy
$ms = Get-Mailbox | where-object {$_.ThrottlingPolicy -eq $op.Identity}
$np = Get-ThrottlingPolicy RestrictedUserThrottlingPolicy
foreach ($m in $ms) {Set-Mailbox $m.Identity -ThrottlingPolicy $np;}

You can remove nondefault policies that aren't currently being applied using Remove-ThrottlingPolicy. Simply enter Remove-ThrottlingPolicy followed by the name of the policy as shown in this example:

Remove-ThrottlingPolicy TempUserThrottlingPolicy

10. Starting, Stopping, and Restarting Web Sites

Web sites run under a server process that you can start, stop, and pause, much like other server processes. For example, if you're changing the configuration of a Web site or performing other maintenance tasks, you might need to stop the Web site, make the changes, and then restart it. When a Web site is stopped, it doesn't accept connections from users and can't be used to deliver or retrieve mail.

The master process for all Web sites is the World Wide Web Publishing Service. Stopping this service stops all Web sites using the process, and all connections are disconnected immediately. Starting this service restarts all Web sites that were running when you stopped the World Wide Web Publishing Service.

You can start, stop, or restart a Web site by completing the following steps:

  1. Start IIS Manager. Click Start, point to Programs or All Programs as appropriate, point to Administrative Tools, and then select Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.

  2. In IIS Manager, double-click the entry for the server you want to work with, and then double-click Sites.

  3. Select the Web site you want to manage. Using the options in the Actions pane, you can now do the following:

    • Select Start to start the Web site.

    • Select Stop to stop the Web site.

    • Select Restart to stop and then start the Web site.

If you suspect there's a problem with the World Wide Web Publishing Service or other related IIS services, you can use the following technique to restart all IIS services:

  1. Start IIS Manager. Click Start, point to Programs or All Programs as appropriate, point to Administrative Tools, and then select Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.

  2. Select the entry for the server you want to work with, and then select Restart in the Actions Pane.

11. Configuring URLs and Authentication for the OAB

Outlook 2007 and later clients can retrieve the offline address book (OAB) from a Web distribution point. The default distribution point is the OAB virtual directory on the Default Web Site. Each distribution point has three associated properties:

  • PollInterval The time interval during which the Microsoft Exchange File Distribution service should poll the generation server for new updates (in minutes)

  • ExternalUrl The URL from which Outlook clients outside the corporate network can access the OAB

  • InternalUrl The URL from which Outlook clients inside the corporate network can access the OAB

You can configure Web distribution points by completing the following steps:

  1. In the Exchange Management Console, expand the Server Configuration node, and then select the Client Access node.

  2. In the upper portion of the details pane, you'll see a list of your organization's Client Access servers. Select the server with which you want to work.

  3. In the lower portion of the details pane, on the Offline Address Book Distribution tab, you'll see an entry for each OAB Web distribution point configured on the server.

  4. Right-click the distribution point you want to configure and then select Properties. This opens the Properties dialog box as shown in Figure 5.

  5. On the General tab, set the desired polling interval using the Polling Interval text box. The default interval is 480 minutes.

  6. On the URLs tab, the current internal and external URLs are listed. If you want to change the current settings, enter the desired internal and external URLs in the text boxes provided. Click OK.

Configure OAB.

Figure 5. Configure OAB.

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